The Role of Gender in Sports Participation

The Role of Gender in Sports Participation

Across the globe, there is a กลยุทธ์ชนะเกมบาคาร่า wide range of sport participation rates between men and women. Traditionally male only/dominated sports have lower participation rates for women and girls than other sports (Ekholm et al, 2019; Oxford and Spaaij, 2019, Elliott et al, 2020; Fowlie et al, 2020). Despite this gap, there are also some studies indicating that female sports club membership is increasing worldwide and specifically within these traditionally male-dominated sports (Oxford and Spaaij, 2019; Ishigami, 2019).

I used the WVS-EVS data to categorize people into groups who either actively or passively belong to a sports club. The model results show that there is a very small, yet significant average effect for being an active member of a sports club in terms of holding sexist gender ideologies, irrespective of the country-specific interactions (see Figure 3).

The Role of Gender in Sports Participation

This finding suggests that the interaction between gender and sports participation does not operate in a linear way. For example, for women, the higher support of emancipative values amongst active members in women-only sports clubs could explain why these individuals are less likely to endorse sexist ideologies. On the other hand, men who are able to fulfill hegemonic masculinities might be more inclined to hold sexist ideologies, especially in countries where this is more prevalent. In addition, it is possible that sexist beliefs are more likely to be transmitted in the locker room, where men interact with other men (Rene Gregory 2011, p. 202).


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